An assembly (or assembler) language, often abbreviated asm, is a low-level programming language for a computer, or other programmable device, in which there is a very strong (generally one-to-one) correspondence between the language and the architecture's machine code instructions. Each assembly language is specific to a particular computer architecture. In contrast, most high-level programming languages are generally portable across multiple architectures but require interpreting or compiling. Assembly language may also be called symbolic machine code.
C was originally developed by Dennis Ritchie between 1969 and 1973 at Bell Labs, and used to re-implement the Unix operating system. It has since become one of the most widely used programming languages of all time, with C compilers from various vendors available for the majority of existing computer architectures and operating systems. C has been standardized by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) since 1989 (see ANSI C) and subsequently by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
C# (pronounced as see sharp) is a multi-paradigm programming language encompassing strong typing, imperative, declarative, functional, generic, object-oriented (class-based), and component-oriented programming disciplines. It was developed by Microsoft within its .NET initiative and later approved as a standard by Ecma (ECMA-334) and ISO (ISO/IEC 23270:2006). C# is one of the programming languages designed for the Common Language Infrastructure.
C# is a general-purpose, object-oriented programming language. Its development team is led by Anders Hejlsberg. The most recent version is C# 6.0, which was released on July 20, 2015.
Before the initial standardization in 1998, C++ was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup at Bell Labs since 1979, as an extension of the C language as he wanted an efficient and flexible language similar to C, which also provided high-level features for program organization.
The D programming language is an object-oriented, imperative, multi-paradigm system programming language created by Walter Bright of Digital Mars and released in 2001. Bright was joined in the design and development effort in 2006 by Andrei Alexandrescu. Though it originated as a re-engineering of C++, D is a distinct language, having redesigned some core C++ features while also taking inspiration from other languages, notably Java, Python, Ruby, C#, and Eiffel.
Forth is an imperative stack-based computer programming language and environment originally designed by Charles "Chuck" Moore. Language features include structured programming, reflection, concatenative programming (functions are composed with juxtaposition) and extensibility (the programmer can create new commands).
A procedural programming language without type checking, Forth features both interactive execution of commands (making it suitable as a shell for systems that lack a more formal operating system) and the ability to compile sequences of commands for later execution. For much of Forth's existence, the standard technique was to compile to threaded code, but there are modern implementations that generate optimized machine code like other language compilers.
Go (often referred to as golang) is an open source programming language created at Google in 2007 by Robert Griesemer, Rob Pike, and Ken Thompson. It is a compiled, statically typed language in the tradition of Algol and C, with garbage collection, limited structural typing, memory safety features and CSP-style concurrent programming features added.
Haskell /ˈhæskəl/ is a standardized, general-purpose purely functional programming language, with non-strict semantics and strong static typing. It is named after logician Haskell Curry. The latest standard of Haskell is Haskell 2010. As of February 2016, a group is working on the next version, Haskell 2014.
Haskell features a type system with type inference and lazy evaluation. Type classes first appeared in the Haskell programming language. Its main implementation is the Glasgow Haskell Compiler.
Lua (meaning moon) is a lightweight, multi-paradigm programming language designed primarily for embedded systems and clients. Lua is cross-platform, since the interpreter is written in ANSI C, and has a relatively simple C API.
Lua was originally designed in 1993 as a language for extending software applications to meet the increasing demand for customization at the time. It provided the basic facilities of most procedural programming languages, but more complicated or domain-specific features were not included; rather, it included mechanisms for extending the language, allowing programmers to implement such features. As Lua was intended to be a general embeddable extension language, the designers of Lua focused on improving its speed, portability, extensibility, and ease-of-use in development.
Odin is a programming language under development by our very own Ginger Bill.
Odin is fast, concise, readable, and pragmatic. It is designed with the intent of replacing C with the following goals:
Python supports multiple programming paradigms, including object-oriented, imperative and functional programming or procedural styles. It features a dynamic type system and automatic memory management and has a large and comprehensive standard library.
Rust is a general-purpose, multi-paradigm, compiled programming language sponsored by Mozilla Research. It is designed to be a "safe, concurrent, practical language", supporting pure-functional, imperative-procedural, and object-oriented styles.>
The language grew out of a personal project by Mozilla employee Graydon Hoare. Mozilla began sponsoring the project in 2009 and announced it in 2010. The same year, work shifted from the initial compiler (written in OCaml) to the self-hosting compiler written in Rust. Known as rustc, it successfully compiled itself in 2011. rustc uses LLVM as its back end.
The first numbered pre-alpha release of the Rust compiler occurred in January 2012. Rust 1.0, the first stable release, was released on May 15, 2015.
Although its development is sponsored by Mozilla, it is an open community project. The design of the language has been refined through the experiences of writing the Servo web browser layout engine and the Rust compiler.